No foreign education or training beyond your medical school diploma is recognized in the United States. Therefore, if you are planning to move to the US and work there as a physician, it does not make sense to start your specialty training in your home country. Instead, focus your effort on passing the USMLE exams, securing a few clinical rotations in the US, and entering into a good residency program in the United States. It is ideal to start your preparation for the USMLE exam at least 2 years before graduation from your medical school.
How to proceed:
1. First you need to pass the 3 USMLE exams (United States Medical Licensing Examination) that are a part of the ECFMG certification (USMLE exams + your foreign medical diploma recognized by ECFMG (Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates))
2. Then you need to enter into a residency program in the United States and obtain your work permit (J-1 visa). You cannot practice medicine in the United States without graduating from a residency training program in the US. It is not possible to apply to residency programs individually but only through the systems of ERAS and Match (NRMP).
3. Graduate from a residency program (usually 3 years) and pass the Board Certifications exam (specialty exam)
(4. Enter into a fellowship program using similar systems as ERAS and Match. Fellowships are usually 3-year programs allowing a second specialization such as cardiology or gastroenterology after a residency in internal medicine, or thoracic surgery after a general surgery residency. Internal medicine doctors or family physicians are not required to do a fellowship.
Perhaps the most useful website for the first orientation is www.ecfmg.org/applicant-portal.html where you find how to obtain the ECFMG certification, how to apply to a residency program, etc. This website is specifically for foreign medical doctors who wish to enter into the American medical system.